Ultra High Vacuum Technology – Basic Principles

Ultra high vacuum technology is used to create enclosed environments where the air pressure contained within the contained space is well below atmospheric pressure. Such environments play a vital role in research and development, scientific experimentation and space exploration. Understanding the basic principles of vacuum technology is essential to sourcing the right equipment.

Air is a mixture of gases that has approximately 1025 particles per m3 of air when measured at one bar of air pressure. Particles exert force, or pressure, on the walls of any defined space. The fewer the particles there are present in that space, the lower the force that is exerted on the walls of the given space. An absolute vacuum would have no particles present, and therefore no pressure would be exerted. In a controlled vacuum environment, pumps are used to remove as many particles as possible to create an ultra high vacuum environment. The more particles that are removed, the closer to an absolute vacuum the environment becomes. Where fewer particles are removed from a chamber, the environment created is termed a rough vacuum. One of the problems associated with UHV creation is altitude. As this increases the external air pressure falls. This affects a researcher’s ability to create vacuum conditions and reduces the attainable vacuum level of an ejector. Vacuum ejectors function according to the venture principle, and are much simpler in design than other vacuum generators. Other ultra high vacuum parts used to create vacuums include the displacement pump. This works by having air flowing into a space, which is then mechanically shut off, compressed and then ejected.

Regardless of the type of pump you choose to use as part of your ultra high vacuum technology, you will need a chamber, connectors, valves and controller units to complete your system. You can find these and much more with Arun Microelectronics Limited on our website